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In 2011, one of the RFC's authors, Robin Seggelmann, then a Ph. student at the Fachhochschule Münster, implemented the Heartbeat Extension for Open SSL.The affected versions of Open SSL allocate a memory buffer for the message to be returned based on the length field in the requesting message, without regard to the actual size of that message's payload.Because of this failure to do proper bounds checking, the message returned consists of the payload, possibly followed by whatever else happened to be in the allocated memory buffer.Heartbleed is a security bug in the Open SSL cryptography library, which is a widely used implementation of the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol.It was introduced into the software in 2012 and publicly disclosed in April 2014.
Heartbleed is therefore exploited by sending a malformed heartbeat request with a small payload and large length field to the vulnerable party (usually a server) in order to elicit the victim's response, permitting attackers to read up to 64 kilobytes of the victim's memory that was likely to have been used previously by Open SSL.