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304, that the Eighth Amendment, applicable to the States through the Fourteenth Amendment, prohibits the execution of a mentally retarded person. (a) The Eighth Amendment's prohibition against "cruel and unusual punishments" must be interpreted according to its text, by considering history, tradition, and precedent, and with due regard for its purpose and function in the constitutional design. 302, 334, that the Eighth Amendment did not mandate a categorical exemption from the death penalty for mentally retarded persons because only two States had enacted laws banning such executions. The Court also returned to the rule, established in decisions predating at 319-320, the Court ruled that the death penalty constitutes an excessive sanction for the entire category of mentally retarded offenders, and that the Eighth Amendment places a substantive restriction on the State's power to take such an offender's life, . Although, by contrast to in that respect is counterbalanced by the consistent direction of the change toward abolition. (2) Rejection of the imposition of the death penalty on juvenile offenders under 18 is required by the Eighth Amendment. Their own vulnerability and comparative lack of control over their immediate surroundings mean juveniles have a greater claim than adults to be forgiven for failing to escape negative influences in their whole environment. The reality that juveniles still struggle to define their identity means it is less supportable to conclude that even a heinous crime committed by a juvenile is evidence of irretrievably depraved character. The same reasoning applies to all juvenile offenders under 18. 361 (1989), a divided Court rejected the proposition that the Constitution bars capital punishment for juvenile offenders in this age group. At the age of 17, when he was still a junior in high school, Christopher Simmons, the respondent here, committed murder.Reporting ASEAN’s Amanda Siddharta has a frank chat with former ACWC head, Lily Purba.China is not yet an economic behemoth in ASEAN, given that it’s s more of a trade power than a major foreign investor in the region.An unacceptable likelihood exists that the brutality or cold-blooded nature of any particular crime would overpower mitigating arguments based on youth as a matter of course, even where the juvenile offender's objective immaturity, vulnerability, and lack of true depravity should require a sentence less severe than death. In chilling, callous terms he talked about his plan, discussing it for the most part with two friends, Charles Benjamin and John Tessmer, then aged 15 and 16 respectively. Crook's bedroom, where he recognized her from a previous car accident involving them both.When a juvenile commits a heinous crime, the State can exact forfeiture of some of the most basic liberties, but the State cannot extinguish his life and his potential to attain a mature understanding of his own humanity. The United States is the only country in the world that continues to give official sanction to the juvenile penalty. Simmons proposed to commit burglary and murder by breaking and entering, tying up a victim, and throwing the victim off a bridge. Simmons later admitted this confirmed his resolve to murder her.